X-Men and the Mutant Metaphor: Race and Gender in the Comic Books

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For Storm, Fawaz notes that she is not from America, and she questions feminine norms such as not wearing clothes while swimming or working around the mansion. Storm also does not allow the male members of the team to even consider her as a romantic object as she calls them her brothers and always turns down any romantic advance. However, Storm is a woman and her costumes and hair styles never leave this to question and she often acts as a mother or sister figure to other members of the team. So Storms acts as a character who is aware of different racial and gender identities, but instead of allowing herself to be placed in a role, she chooses what she wants to be.

Jean Grey does not have the luxury of an outsider like Storm. Jean Grey is the stereotypical American female, just with weak telepathic abilities. At the end of this saga, Storm overcomes her fear of Phoenix and literally joins hands with Jean and offers up her life to help the Phoenix. Cyclops's father does the same, demonstrating the writer's wishes for cross gender and cross racial partnerships. Fawaz's analysis of this storyline continues to the end with the Phoenix's realization that every member of the X-Men is important and the image of the team forms in her mind as the tree of life from Kabbalan teachings.

Fawaz ends the article by discussing how this series showed readers that in a time of changing family, sexual and racial ideals, the proper response is not to fight for the way things always were but to accept differences and change. The excellent footnotes in this article would be a great help to anyone interested in these aspects of the series.

Fingeroth, Danny. The chapters of this book are divided into different Jewish aspects of superheroes. He states that Stan Lee and Jack Kirby started the series with the purpose of being a forum discussing the changing world and how mankind was going to have to learn how to live with minorities. The original characters started on their path of quietly helping humans where they could, which reflected the attitude of Jewish Americans at the time.

While this message continues into the second generation with the half-Jewish writer Chris Claremont, the focus moved more to Civil Rights, with Professor Xavier taking the side of Martin Luther King Jr. Fingeroth elaborates the Jewish symbolism that appears in the Phoenix saga, especially the scene at the end where Jean imagines the X-Men as the parts of the tree of life, with herself at the top and even calls herself Tipherath, the sixth element of the Kabbalah. It is interesting to note that this alternate future is diverted by Kitty Pryde, who is a Jew.

Each chapter of this book has its own detailed bibliography with further reading suggestions. Chapter seven focuses on characters like the Hulk, Punisher and Wolverine as superheroes who use rage to fuel their actions. Wolverine is described as a unique addition to this category because he can kill many people during his berserker rage but he still maintains sympathy with the audience in a way that the Punisher does not.

Fingeroth suspects that Logan is likable because he is in a group and his rage is not his entire character, just a part of it that comes out when Logan has to protect his family, the X-Men. If readers see mutation as a metaphor for otherness, then Wolverine is the protector of all misfits. Foege, Alec. Foege lists the differences between Claremont and Stan Lee as: Claremont reinvigorated the characters by making his heroes morally ambiguous and downright tortured, he also played up the idea that the X-Men were outsiders and that their real enemy is hate which unfortunately will never go away.

For example, when Wolverine reveals to his team mates that his claws were not just products of scientific experimentation but actual bone claws attached to his skeleton, the entire team recoils in shock. Even among the outsiders, Wolverine is different and these moments are what Claremont wanted for his fans.

X-Men and the Mutant Metaphor: Race and Gender in the Comic Books

The end of the article covers the writer who replaced Claremont for a few years, Scott Lobdell. These writers had major differences in their viewing of the characters and story. Lobdell was more plot-driven while Claremont was more character-driven. Foege reminds readers however that the personalities of the characters seen in the first movie came mostly from Claremont's time with the series. Fried, Brian. This dissertation explicates the origin story in comic book films, with an emphasis on the first X-Men movie.

Fried explains that origin stories are important to both the comic book industry as a revival for sales figures and to the needs of Hollywood as a demonstration for the need for more synergy and team behavior. Hall, Kelley J. This article suggests how to use comic books to show sociological perspective, as Hall and Lucal consider the comic book as a cultural artifact. Hall and Lucal explain that the X-Men work well for this exercise as it centers on a team, so there are more characters for the students to analyze. While there are not many mentions of specific characters or plot points from the X-Men, the authors are looking to provide a broad text that will encourage teachers to use comic books as historical and sociological texts.

However, it can serve as a useful guide for how to look at comics books. Hall and Lucal recommend that teachers ask their students to look for elements of the sociology of gender and social inequality while reading comics. There is a section devoted to the X-Men when they discuss social inequality and they instruct teachers to look at mutation as racism, homosexuality, homophobia, anti-Semitism and governmental control of anything out of the norm.

The article ends with good instruction for the best methods for purchasing and utilizing comic books as classroom texts. The bibliography is very useful for anyone looking to pursue this kind of project. Housel, Rebecca. This essay characterizes the characters Storm, Mystique and Jean Grey as heroes on their path as described by Joseph Campbell. When Campbell described this journey, he said there were three parts: a departure, an initiation, and a return and Housel believes that each of them mentioned mutants goes through this in the first two movies.

She does supply ample support for each stage of the journey for each character in an organized manner, although she does have to borrow plot points from the comic book to fulfill everything. The book has a general index with author, title, title of series, and character entries but this is not needed for Housel's essay as it very well organized.

Her footnotes serve as a bibliography. Kaveney, Roz. Capes and Crusaders in Comics and Films. London: I. Tauris, This is notable as Morrison has Xavier distance himself from Moira and their son David to foster a deeper friendship with Magneto. This friendship is shown in the second and third movie and is the reason for their supposed homosexual relationship. Previous moments of overreaching in comic books always featured male superheroes and only when they were becoming villains.

Kaveney later scrutinizes some changes made to the series in the transition from comic book to film, specifically at how the Phoenix storyline played out in the second and third movies and how the director of the third film did not do the story justice. Klock, Geoff. In Miller's X-Men, the subjective ideal of gnosticism is shown through Professor Xavier when he leaves his wife and child to create a mutant society with Magneto. Morrison mirrors this dark look at post-humanism through alternate futures of the X-Men featuring pessimistic views of life.

Knowles, Christopher. Joseph Michael Linsner. San Francisco: Weisner Books, This book postulates that superheroes fill in the place left by the deities worshiped by our ancestors. This section is supposed to serve as evidence for our society's need for a hero. The group is placed under the archetype of the brotherhood and this mention has a brief history of the series, including Stan Lee's motivations for creating a mutant group in the time of the Beat generation, counterculture, Civil Rights Movement and the persecution of the Jews.

The organization of the book can be confusing, but there is a good index to help as some archetypes are mentioned in several sections. The bibliography is also very thorough and should provide a good starting place for research concerning archetypes present in the X-Men series. Lambkin, David J. This well-researched article asks the question of why Storm was created as she does not fit into any other category in comic books. She is African, a woman and she has no class. Lambkin organizes his article by first looking at Storm as a woman then later focusing on Storm as an African American, and ending with how Storm never puts herself in or fits into a class.

Lambkin starts his dissection of Storm by looking at her feminine nature. He notes that all of Storm's costumes feature elements of bondage and many covers display her in positions for her to be dominated, but that is not her personality. In one of the first issues featuring Storm, she swims naked in the pool at the mansion. She does not do this to attract men but because that is the way she has always swam.

She does put on clothes when asked, but is confused by this cultural difference as her intentions were innocent. Another member of the team wonders if they are worse off since they cannot allow her to be herself, which asks the reader to think about culturalism. While Storm may always looks feminine, she rarely takes part in any domestic tasks around the mansion and even plays poker with the guys. He disagrees with Reynolds' notions concerning superheroes of color, as Reyonlds says that non-white superheroes do not offer anything radically different in the genre, they just fill a quota.

Lambkin says a black superhero challenges the American ideal of a hero as all of the other major heroes of the Golden Age of comics were white males. Lambkin further disagrees with Reynolds' statement about strong female superheroes being similar to the women looked up to in Cosmopolitan. Lambkin says that the magazine focuses on instruction for women wishing to reach a higher status in society while the comic book does not instruct, it just shows Storm figuring out how to be herself.

The last section of his article looks at the notion of class and how Storm never clarifies what class she belongs in. It is known she had poor backgrounds and spent much of her childhood as a thief, but she was later worshiped as a goddess in Africa. While she is X-Man, she never works and does go on big shopping trips with no explanation of where her money comes from. I find it interesting that Lambkin does not mention that this particular characteristic is true of most of the X-Men.

He finishes his article by answering his question of why Storm was created by saying that she is just one way the writers were trying to bring many different cultures to the team just as Wolverine is Canadian, Gambit is Cajun and Nightcrawler is German. Lecker, Michael J. Lecker explains that his motivation for this article came from his own use of the series as a guide to growing up as a gay youth. While others have discussed Northstar as the first gay X-Men character and have looked at the metaphor of mutation as homosexuality, Lecker claims to be the first to describe the X-Men as a guide for being a homosexual youth.

Lecker uses theories from Eve Sedgwick as her stance is that gay youth must be able to do queer readings of many works of literature to fight off negative stereotypes from the media. The only prominent queer members of popular culture serve as hair stylists and fashion gurus, so the X-Men make for a substantial set of heroes.

The rest of the article is Lecker's evidence for why this series is a good template for growing up as something different from the norm. His evidence does need to be listed as many of his points are novel to the discussion of this series. In the X-Men, mutation manifests in characters at about the same time that homosexuality appears in adolescents, and is triggered by moments of stress, even sexual exploration by mutants such as Rogue and Rusty. Both mutants and gay youth tend to believe that their difference is something they are born with.

The X-Men universe is one where those who are oppressed are those who have more power, so it empowers gay teenagers which is positive and this empowerment is not seen in popular culture. This message could make the younger audience feel more positive about themselves. Mutants may either feel self hatred or subject themselves to isolation once their difference is discovered, which may also occur in gay teenagers. The Morlocks go the extreme with isolation, and this group can represent those whose difference is so outside of our hetero-normative culture that they cannot conform; they cannot pass.

The concept of passing also pertains to characters such as Nightcrawler. In the second film, Nightcrawler asks Mystique why she does not just conform to look like a human all of the time and her response is that she should not have to. Lecker ends his article by looking at one of the most positive elements of mutant society that he hopes will transfer to the society of homosexuality. In the X-Men, older mutants look out for and mentor younger mutants. This article demonstrates an overall understanding of both the comic books, cartoons and film of the X-Men through his evidence.

His bibliography clarifies the origins of his evidence if not done completely in the text. Madsen, Deborah L. Vienna, Austria: Lit, This essay highlights the metaphor of mutation as the Civil Rights Movement, looking mostly at the social elements of America when the series started. Madsen does include examples from the first two movies and she does navigate from the books to the movies very well. She also links these two examples by showing that Professor Xavier represents multiculturalism and Magneto represents separatism in each medium.

The rest of the essay is devoted to a discussion of different country's views of multiculturalism and leaves behind the X-Men after the first three pages. This article does contain a very exhaustive bibliography if one wishes to further research multiculturalism. Maggio, J. Pierce The Philosophy of Pierce: Selected Writings , to say that because our brain uses cognitive images to help us understand the world, then comics allows self-creation and teach us to be members of a democracy.

There is only a small mention of the X-Men, but as there are no other specific titles discussed in this brief article I find it noteworthy. The series is used as part of an example.

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Both texts use images to teach something to their audience. Mahoney, Carol. This dissertation is a study of family dynamics in six comic book series and X-Men features as one of these families. Mahoney took a random sampling of issues from each of the six families and her results show that overall, superheroes do not have significant relationships with their family or friends. Malcolm, Cheryl Alexander. Samantha Baskind and Ranen Omer-Sherman. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, This essay is a part of a well researched and indexed book. Every features a complete bibliography in the end notes.

This essay starts with a long quote by Chris Claremont discussing how he struggled with understanding the motivations of Magneto until he thought about the effects of the Holocaust had on him. This casting of Magneto as a Holocaust survivor gives depth and complexity to the persecution of mutant-kind. However, I cannot find a separate date for the writing of this essay. Magneto features as the primary character in Malcolm's essay.

She considers Magneto and the Brotherhood of Evil Mutants from the first generation of the series to have Semitic elements and she claims that Professor Xavier was a symbol for the WASP even though Lee did not set out to do that. One novel explanation of Magneto in Malcolm's work is in the colors of his costume.

Malcolm has quotes from the comic book where Magneto explains that he wears red in tribute for the Jews killed in the camps, and Malcolm says the purple of his cape should remind readers of royalty which is how he sees his place in the mutant kind. Professor Xavier wears simplistic suits in black, white and grey; he is more worried about passing as a human. Malcolm also dissects the visual representation of Magneto between the first and second generations.

Stan Lee never pictured Magneto as a complete character which is demonstrated in how he is never fully pictured in the first generation, but in the second Claremont has complete pictures of him, and shows him to be physically powerful, trying to give readers an image of a strong Jew. The last section of the article examines issue of the Uncanny X-Men , where Professor Xavier and Magneto first meeting in a hospital in Israel that is trying to help Holocaust survivors. This storyline is a product of Claremont and was created to show how the horrors experienced by Holocaust survivors effected both men.

She is taken on this trip by Magneto and the effects of his remembrance stay with Kitty and are seen in issue where she diffuses an angry mob set on killing Nightcrawler. She tells them they cannot think of Nightcrawler as not human because the Nazis always said that Jews were obviously not human. This remembrance forces the mob to realize that their desire was wrong.

Mano, D. This brief article starts off by arguing that comics represent the current communal dream of the human race. Mano remarks that the very creation of the X-Men demonstrate that we are a faithless society as they come from an accidental exposure to nuclear materials.

The only element of religion that Mano sees in the X-Men is in the transformation that occurs in older religions where one god splits into many, like Zeus splitting into Aphrodite and Athena. The article ends with the question of why mutants are good or bad, and his answer is that there is no answer except for the whim of the character which says that our society does not have faith in the powers and products of science.

Even though this article does not have a bibliography, it feels solid in its interpretation of the series. McDaniel, Anita K. This article scrutinizes the effects of the marriage between Storm and the Black Panther, or T'Challa, who is a member of the Avengers and king of an African nation. McDaniel explains that Marvel created this marriage as a way to raise sales figures, especially among African-American readers, but he knows from researching the largest Marvel comics blog that readers do not focus so much on the racial qualities of the characters; they focus more on the fact that they are superheroes.

Fingeroth states that a superhero is a character who deals with problems on a grand scale; they have all of the normal problems of human life but they rise above them, they do not endure them. McDaniel views this definition as correct and says that this marriage really is not useful as a tactic to generate reader interest. Using Fingeroth's definition of superheroes, McDaniel further proves that Storm is a superhero, not just some supporting female character. This causes a problem with her marriage as McDaniel claims she must give up her status as a superhero if she gets married and moves to Wakanda, which is ruled by the Black Panther.

For support of this idea, McDaniel looks at the narrative and visual representations of Storm in the X-Men series and the space assigned to her in the Black Panther series. His research into the X-Men examines Storm's costume and changing hair styles, leadership style, fighting style and her ability to overcome the racial and gender barrier put up by other members of the team which proves on many levels that Storm is a fantastic superhero by Fingeroth's definition. The Black Panther is not the first man to contemplate marriage to Storm. The first was Forge, a fellow X-Man and in issue of the Uncanny X-Men, Forge broken the engagement because he knew that marriage for her meant leaving the team.

It is interesting that neither Forge or McDaniel consider the marriage between Scott Summers and Jean Grey when they think that a marriage will change Storm. However, in the Black Panther series, Storm is expected to be subordinate to her husband. McDaniel makes the point that the series does not change its name to Black Panther and Storm, nor is she called Queen Storm, but Queen Ororo and when she first meets her future mother in law, her past heroics are discussed only in the light that she will breed strong children. There are a couple of times where Storm uses her abilities to be a partner to the Black Panther in battle, but all of those examples occur before the proposal and after it she is relegated to a flying scout.

This subordinate role is drastically different from anything Storm has done before and feels uncharacteristic. McDaniel ends his article by explaining that he thinks this demotion has been done intentionally but not maliciously. A thorough bibliography follows the article.

X-Men and the Mutant Metaphor: Race and Gender in the Comic Books

Messner, Monika. Domna Pastourmatzi. Thessaloniki: University Studio Press, This essay centers its discussion of the X-Men in the films, but all elements mentioned by Messner come from the comic books. She covers the readings of mutation as a metaphor for Civil Rights and Judaism before coming to a refreshing look at what mutation in the X-Men can mean to modern readers. The essay ends with a debate of whether Magneto or Xavier are right; especially as Xavier serves as a symbol of restriction while Magneto is a symbol of intellectual expression which is more in line with modern desires.

While the bibliography of this essay is very good, the index of the book is not as there is not a single entry for the X-Men. Miller, P. Million, Bonnie. This dissertation examines the dynamic of individualism and collectivism of American culture as seen in the films X-Men and X2. This book was not received in time for this assignment. Pecora, Norma. Steve Craig. London: Sage Publications, This essay treats comic books as a guide to masculinity in American culture. Her reason for starting with Superman is she believes the ideals of masculinity from the 's are still being taught in comic books today.

These titles were chosen based on sales figures for the highest ranking series and popular characters of the fall of The section devoted to the X-Men concludes that ideals of masculinity in this series are the same as in Superman: the man is in control, when women contribute to the fight they do so in swimsuits, main characters act as vigilantes, villains are complex and both series contain images of racism and anti-feminism.

I believe that her sampling of the comic books did not cover a wide enough span of time, nor did she consider different writers of each series. This book does a general index with a few subject entries but it is not complete as there are no entries for X-Men, Batman or Spider-Man. There is also no bibliography for this essay. Perry, Tim. New York: Peter Lang, In this essay, Tim Perry defines the X-Men comic books and movie as religious texts. The essay begins with a brief history of the series, focusing mainly on the second generation.

Perry sees Jean Grey as both a savior figure and a degenerate as her phoenix power allows her to save all of humanity but also causes the destruction of an entire world. An explicit example of religion in the series is the character Nightcrawler who may look like a demon with his forked tail and cloven feet but is actually in training to become a priest. Professor Xavier is seen as a Jesus figure with his constant instruction for his students to turn the other cheek. Perry then spends the rest of the article on a close examination of Magneto from Magneto 0 and Original Sin.

This book contains a very complete index and this essay contains a good bibliography. Peterson, Bill E. This article reports the findings of an archival study done by Peterson and Gerstein. This study looked at themes of authoritarianism in Marvel comic books in times of relatively high or low social and economic threat.

X-Men was one of the comics used in this study. Their hypothesis states that during times of high social and economic threat, they should see more elements of authoritarian psychology in comic books, which would be more overt conflict between heroes and villains, more aggressive villainous actions, story lines that repress unconventional action with drugs, women and members of other races, lower percentage of characters questioning the acts of the government, and sales of comic books featuring conventional characters, of which the X-Men is not, should increase. The research methods of this study were very thorough and well documented but are too complex to include here.

Peterson and Gerstein chose to use the December issues of the comic book titles from , which is the only limitation seen in this study.

New Age for the X-Men Revealed - Comic Class

Of course their coding methods were meticulous and they had to narrow down the range of issues for their study, but I wonder if their results would have been the same if they had considered other months or even a single year. The results of the study showed that during high threat years, aggression was more present in all characters, especially in villains. They did not see a large difference in the morality of comic books although plots were slightly more conventional in high-threat years. Speaking roles of women and characters of color decreased during high-threat years, except for the years where characters of color had more spoken lines than white characters.

Also, the sale of comic books featuring conventional characters did not change through high and low threat years whereas unconventional stories, such as X-Men , increased in sales during times of low-threat. This article may be more scientific than most readers of literary criticism are used to, but its findings are interesting as they may explain unusual changes in characters or plots if one is not considering the social and economic climates of the time.

Pustz, Matthew. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, Reynolds, Richard. Super Heroes: A Modern Mythology. The first three chapters of this book do consider mythical elements in many comic book series and there are no mentions of the X-Men important enough to note.

After a brief history of the series, Reynolds analyzes the relationship between Chris Claremont, the writer, and John Byrne, the artist of the issues Reynolds chose. Byrne empathized more with Wolverine while Claremont generally considered every member the team as an equal, which is mirrored in the characters by the power struggle between Cyclops and Wolverine.

A complete summary of the major developments in the series in those issues is given. There is a general index and bibliography for the book. Sanderson, Peter.

The things that set the X-Men apart in this comparison are: the X-Men do not hide behind dual identities like Batman or Superman, they are mutants, they are more self contained than any other Marvel series, had a hugely successful revamping in the 's, has given their readers more variety than other series and almost all of the characters are complete and every audience member has someone they can empathize with.

Shyminsky, Neil. This article begins by covering the familiar ground of how the series serves as a parable for anyone feeling different and oppressed, but then it makes a unique point. This series is supposed to appeal to people of both genders, all nationalities and races, but that is not reflected in the actual audience which is overwhelmingly white middle-class male. Shyminky's evidence is from a long-running online message board for the X-Men and a media kit put online by Marvel.

Shyminskey theorizes that the reason the series is so popular among white males is that it allows everyone to feel like an outsider, even if you are a middle-class white male. He calls this action appropriation, where a dominant culture robs a subordinate culture of its aspects of identity and in this case, the white male is robbing all cultures represented in the X-Men. The series is said to push a political ideal of inclusion and tolerance, but Shyminskey says that is does not.

The first writers of the series associate members of the X-Men with privilege; the original team was all white and had two doctors and two millionaires. While the team does gain a black member in the 's, the team is still controlled by Professor Xavier and Cyclops, both white males. Shyminskey considers the leadership styles of both Xavier and Cyclops and their desire to keep the status quo as a reaction to a loss of white male privilege by progressive and anti-oppressive politics.

And just like the white male readers get to feel different, Cyclops and Xavier get to claim the status of victim even while they enjoy the privilege of white power. The first run of the series could not contain minority characters as readers would have been uncomfortable with this in the 's.

This is especially the case with the Morlocks. The X-Men are a group that can mostly pass as normal while the Morlocks have no hope of passing as humans. They are mostly read as a foil to the original team, but in Shyminskey's opinion, the Morlocks are the real mutants because they refuse to conform. The X-Men are supposed to be about acceptance, but they even exclude members of their own race, including the Morlocks, Magneto and the Brotherhood of Mutants.

This privileged existence, especially of Xavier, causes a problem with readings of him as Martin Luther King Jr. They are too different in their upbringing and class to be consider similar. Shyminskey uses a quote from Judith Halberstam saying that current representations of masculinity focuses on the realness and naturalness of the male body, which is exactly what Logan is. Wolverine is a symbol of the old West cowboy who has a questionable past, but a clear code of honor.

Logan even wears Western attire when not in uniform. Logan's mutation allows him to stay at the peak of physical fitness, essentially the peak of the desirable white male. The fact that he is such a popular character demonstrates that our society desires this kind of perfection. Logan's adamantium skeleton actually acts as a poison in Logan's body, forcing his mutant healing powers to constantly be at work. If he did not have this skeleton, he would be more masculine with longer claws, faster healing, hairier, and less self control. These kinds of changes were not liked by readers.

They did not complain about the prejudice being shown by the X-Men, but about the mutants no longer looking attractive. It would seem that Morrison was aware of the idea that most of the readers of X-Men are not minorities but identify themselves as such through reading these comic books. However, these changes did not stay; Morrison was replaced by Joss Whedon. This thorough article is supported by an equally thorough bibliography. Trushell, John M. This article starts with a four and a half page chronological history of science fiction and comic books in America.

Trushell documents science fiction stories by Anne McCaffery and Greg Bear that mirror futuristic plots found in the X-Men to prove that this series tackled topics that were considered important in their time. Continuing in the chronological theme of the article, Trushell moves on to the second generation of the X-Men, describing the new multicultural characters. Trushell discusses the differences between the first and second generation, saying that the changes were intended by Marvel to make the comic more accessible in foreign markets and to older readers.

Trushell believes that not only are these issues an example of how writers felt that all social programs from the government do more harm than good, but were also a solid example of science fiction themes playing out in comic books. This change was reflected over over the entire X-Men branch of Marvel in X-Factor and Generation X with changes in their names and in their plot. This change continued for nine months until Apocalypse was overthrown and things were returned to normal.

Trushell states that these changes were made to sustain the series commercially when sales were dropping. Trushell refers to Chris Claremont's version of the X-Men as more of a soap opera while Grant Morrison's series that started in is rooted more in science fiction. This gene is supposed to be the marker of a species on the verge of extinction.

Trushell recognizes a very similar plot in the story Darwin's Radio by Greg Bear. The author ends his article by stating that he believes that as time goes on, more comic books will utilize plot devices from science fiction and that this will only continue as more comic books are translated for the big screen.

There is a bibliography for this article with entries for other science fiction stories whose plots are similar to the X-Men. Vary, Adam B. And its why DC never clicked with me like that.

  1. Untitled Document.
  2. The Allegorical X-Men: Emblems, Comics, and the Allegorical Potential of Text/Image Hybrid Genres.
  3. 50 Russian Folk-Songs. No. 33. In the Meadows.
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  5. X-Men and the mutant metaphor : race and gender in the comic books / Joseph J. Darowski.!

Charles was a naive idiot who got a lot of mutants killed. I knew there was a reason why i liked the x men series more than anything as far as comics went. The Mad Titan and DaPresident dapped this. You must log in or sign up to reply here. Share This Page Tweet.

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