Haitian Americans (One Nation)

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Many economists prefer this measure when gauging the economic power an economy maintains vis-. GDP - real growth rate : This entry gives GDP growth on an annual basis adjusted for inflation and expressed as a percent. The growth rates are year-over-year, and not compounded. Gross national saving : Gross national saving is derived by deducting final consumption expenditure household plus government from Gross national disposable income, and consists of personal saving, plus business saving the sum of the capital consumption allowance and retained business profits , plus government saving the excess of tax revenues over expenditures , but excludes foreign saving the excess of imports of goods and services over exports.

The figures are presented as a percent of GDP. A negative. GDP - composition, by end use : This entry shows who does the spending in an economy: consumers, businesses, government, and foreigners. The distribution gives the percentage contribution to total GDP of household consumption, government consumption, investment in fixed capital, investment in inventories, exports of goods and services, and imports of goods and services, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete.

GDP - composition, by sector of origin : This entry shows where production takes place in an economy. The distribution gives the percentage contribution of agriculture, industry, and services to total GDP, and will total percent of GDP if the data are complete. Agriculture includes farming, fishing, and forestry. Industry includes mining, manufacturing, energy production, and construction. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other private economic activities that do not prod.

Agriculture - products : This entry is an ordered listing of major crops and products starting with the most important. Industries : This entry provides a rank ordering of industries starting with the largest by value of annual output.


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Industrial production growth rate : This entry gives the annual percentage increase in industrial production includes manufacturing, mining, and construction. Labor force : This entry contains the total labor force figure. Labor force - by occupation : This entry lists the percentage distribution of the labor force by sector of occupation. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. The distribution will total less than percent if the data are incomplete and may range from percent due to rounding.


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Unemployment rate : This entry contains the percent of the labor force that is without jobs. Substantial underemployment might be noted. Population below poverty line : National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group.

Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations. For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.

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Household income or consumption by percentage share : Data on household income or consumption come from household surveys, the results adjusted for household size. Nations use different standards and procedures in collecting and adjusting the data. Surveys based on income will normally show a more unequal distribution than surveys based on consumption.

The quality of surveys is improving with time, yet caution is still necessary in making inter-country comparisons. Distribution of family income - Gini index : This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of a the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to b the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line.

The more nearly equal a country's income distribution, the closer its. Budget : This entry includes revenues, expenditures, and capital expenditures. These figures are calculated on an exchange rate basis, i. Taxes and other revenues : This entry records total taxes and other revenues received by the national government during the time period indicated, expressed as a percent of GDP. Taxes include personal and corporate income taxes, value added taxes, excise taxes, and tariffs.

Other revenues include social contributions - such as payments for social security and hospital insurance - grants, and net revenues from public enterprises. Normalizing the data, by dividing total revenues by GDP, enables easy comparisons acr. Normalizing the data, by dividing the budget balance by GDP, enables easy comparisons across countries and indicates whether a national government saves or borrows money. Countries with high budget deficits relat. Public debt : This entry records the cumulative total of all government borrowings less repayments that are denominated in a country's home currency.

Public debt should not be confused with external debt, which reflects the foreign currency liabilities of both the private and public sector and must be financed out of foreign exchange earnings. Fiscal year : This entry identifies the beginning and ending months for a country's accounting period of 12 months, which often is the calendar year but which may begin in any month.

All yearly references are for the calendar year CY unless indicated as a noncalendar fiscal year FY. Inflation rate consumer prices : This entry furnishes the annual percent change in consumer prices compared with the previous year's consumer prices. Commercial bank prime lending rate : This entry provides a simple average of annualized interest rates commercial banks charge on new loans, denominated in the national currency, to their most credit-worthy customers.

Stock of narrow money : This entry, also known as "M1," comprises the total quantity of currency in circulation notes and coins plus demand deposits denominated in the national currency held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy, measured at a specific point in time. National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate for the date of the information. Because of exchange rate moveme. Stock of broad money : This entry covers all of "Narrow money," plus the total quantity of time and savings deposits, credit union deposits, institutional money market funds, short-term repurchase agreements between the central bank and commercial deposit banks, and other large liquid assets held by nonbank financial institutions, state and local governments, nonfinancial public enterprises, and the private sector of the economy.

National currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange r. Stock of domestic credit : This entry is the total quantity of credit, denominated in the domestic currency, provided by financial institutions to the central bank, state and local governments, public non-financial corporations, and the private sector. The national currency units have been converted to US dollars at the closing exchange rate on the date of the information.

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Market value of publicly traded shares : This entry gives the value of shares issued by publicly traded companies at a price determined in the national stock markets on the final day of the period indicated. It is simply the latest price per share multiplied by the total number of outstanding shares, cumulated over all companies listed on the particular exchange.

Behind the Intervention

Current account balance : This entry records a country's net trade in goods and services, plus net earnings from rents, interest, profits, and dividends, and net transfer payments such as pension funds and worker remittances to and from the rest of the world during the period specified. Exports : This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise exports on an f. Exports - partners : This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

US Exports - commodities : This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued exported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Imports : This entry provides the total US dollar amount of merchandise imports on a c. Imports - commodities : This entry provides a listing of the highest-valued imported products; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value. Imports - partners : This entry provides a rank ordering of trading partners starting with the most important; it sometimes includes the percent of total dollar value.

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold : This entry gives the dollar value for the stock of all financial assets that are available to the central monetary authority for use in meeting a country's balance of payments needs as of the end-date of the period specified. This category includes not only foreign currency and gold, but also a country's holdings of Special Drawing Rights in the International Monetary Fund, and its reserve position in the Fund. Debt - external : This entry gives the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services.

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home : This entry gives the cumulative US dollar value of all investments in the home country made directly by residents - primarily companies - of other countries as of the end of the time period indicated. Direct investment excludes investment through purchase of shares. Exchange rates : This entry provides the average annual price of a country's monetary unit for the time period specified, expressed in units of local currency per US dollar, as determined by international market forces or by official fiat.

The International Organization for Standardization ISO alphabetic currency code for the national medium of exchange is presented in parenthesis. Closing daily exchange rates are not presented in The World Factbook, but are used to convert stock values - e. Energy :: Haiti. Electricity access : This entry provides information on access to electricity. Electrification data — collected from industry reports, national surveys, and international sources — consists of four subfields.

Population without electricity provides an estimate of the number of citizens that do not have access to electricity. Electricity - production : This entry is the annual electricity generated expressed in kilowatt-hours. Electricity - consumption : This entry consists of total electricity generated annually plus imports and minus exports, expressed in kilowatt-hours. Electricity - exports : This entry is the total exported electricity in kilowatt-hours.

Electricity - imports : This entry is the total imported electricity in kilowatt-hours. Electricity - installed generating capacity : This entry is the total capacity of currently installed generators, expressed in kilowatts kW , to produce electricity. A kilowatt kW generator will produce 10 kilowatt hours kWh of electricity, if it runs continuously for one hour. Electricity - from fossil fuels : This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by burning fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum products, and natural gas , expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity.

Electricity - from nuclear fuels : This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity through radioactive decay of nuclear fuel, expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity. Electricity - from hydroelectric plants : This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by water-driven turbines, expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity.

Electricity - from other renewable sources : This entry measures the capacity of plants that generate electricity by using renewable energy sources other than hydroelectric including, for example, wind, waves, solar, and geothermal , expressed as a share of the country's total generating capacity. Crude oil - proved reserves : This entry is the stock of proved reserves of crude oil, in barrels bbl.

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The Haitian Centre for Human Rights et al. v. United States, Case 10.675

Proved reserves are those quantities of petroleum which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions. Natural gas - production : This entry is the total natural gas produced in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - consumption : This entry is the total natural gas consumed in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - exports : This entry is the total natural gas exported in cubic meters cu m. Natural gas - imports : This entry is the total natural gas imported in cubic meters cu m.

Natural gas - proved reserves : This entry is the stock of proved reserves of natural gas in cubic meters cu m. Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions.

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy : This entry is the total amount of carbon dioxide, measured in metric tons, released by burning fossil fuels in the process of producing and consuming energy. Communications :: Haiti. Telephones - fixed lines : This entry gives the total number of fixed telephone lines in use, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants. Telephones - mobile cellular : This entry gives the total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants.

Note that because of the ubiquity of mobile phone use in developed countries, the number of subscriptions per inhabitants can exceed Telephone system : This entry includes a brief general assessment of the system with details on the domestic and international components. CB - citizen's band mobile radio communications. Cellular telephone system - the telephones in this system are radio transceivers, with each instrument having its o. Broadcast media : This entry provides information on the approximate number of public and private TV and radio stations in a country, as well as basic information on the availability of satellite and cable TV services.

Internet users : This entry gives the total number of individuals within a country who can access the Internet at home, via any device type computer or mobile and connection. The percent of population with Internet access i. Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months.

Broadband - fixed subscriptions : This entry gives the total number of fixed-broadband subscriptions, as well as the number of subscriptions per inhabitants. Fixed broadband is a physical wired connection to the Internet e. Transportation :: Haiti. National air transport system : This entry includes four subfields describing the air transport system of a given country in terms of both structure and performance. The second subfield, inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers, lists the total number. Civil aircraft registration country code prefix : This entry provides the one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating the nationality of civil aircraft.

Article 20 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation Chicago Convention , signed in , requires that all aircraft engaged in international air navigation bear appropriate nationality marks. The aircraft registration number consists of two parts: a prefix consisting of a one- or two-character alphanumeric code indicating nationality and a registration suffix of one to fi.

HH Airports : This entry gives the total number of airports or airfields recognizable from the air. The runway s may be paved concrete or asphalt surfaces or unpaved grass, earth, sand, or gravel surfaces and may include closed or abandoned installations. Airports or airfields that are no longer recognizable overgrown, no facilities, etc. Note that not all airports have accommodations for refueling, maintenance, or air traffic control. Airports - with paved runways : This entry gives the total number of airports with paved runways concrete or asphalt surfaces by length.

For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - 1 over 3, m over 10, ft , 2 2, to 3, m 8, to 10, ft , 3 1, to 2, m 5, to 8, ft , 4 to 1, m 3, to 5, ft , and 5 under m under 3, ft. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listing. Not all. Airports - with unpaved runways : This entry gives the total number of airports with unpaved runways grass, dirt, sand, or gravel surfaces by length. Only airports with usable runways are included in this listin. Roadways : This entry gives the total length of the road network and includes the length of the paved and unpaved portions.

Merchant marine : This entry provides the total and the number of each type of privately or publicly owned commercial ship for each country; military ships are not included; the five ships by type include: bulk carrier - for cargo such as coal, grain, cement, ores, and gravel; container ship - for loads in truck-size containers, a transportation system called containerization; general cargo - also referred to as break-bulk containers - for a wide variety of packaged merchandise, such as textiles, furniture.

Ports and terminals : This entry lists major ports and terminals primarily on the basis of the amount of cargo tonnage shipped through the facilities on an annual basis. In some instances, the number of containers handled or ship visits were also considered. The listing le. Military and Security :: Haiti. Military branches : This entry lists the service branches subordinate to defense ministries or the equivalent typically ground, naval, air, and marine forces. Transnational Issues :: Haiti. Disputes - international : This entry includes a wide variety of situations that range from traditional bilateral boundary disputes to unilateral claims of one sort or another.

Information regarding disputes over international terrestrial and maritime boundaries has been reviewed by the US Department of State. References to other situations involving borders or frontiers may also be included, such as resource disputes, geopolitical questions, or irredentist issues; however, inclusion does not necessarily constitute.

Refugees and internally displaced persons : This entry includes those persons residing in a country as refugees, internally displaced persons IDPs , or stateless persons. Starting with president Ulysses S. Grant, who wanted to annex Haiti , American politicians militarily pursued U. Between and , American warships were active in Haitian waters 17 times. Foreign merchants and bankers in Haiti paid armed groups known as cacos to overthrow standing presidents and empower leaders who would give them preferential terms of trade.

The political and economic instability that resulted helped perpetuate the racist perception of Haitians as incapable of self-rule. It also fueled emigration. New research shows that in the first decades of the 20th century, some , rural Haitians left to work as guest laborers for American sugar companies in Cuba.

They were among more than 1 million Caribbeans who traveled across the Americas between and Some of them eventually landed in the United States. The occupation, which lasted until , was the first in a series of U. The next interventions came in and , under the auspices of the United Nations. Through an economic embargo initiated by president George Bush and a military engagement under president Bill Clinton, Aristide was restored to power in When he was again forced out 10 years later , president George W. Bush ordered the US Marines back into Haiti. The actions preceding and during these interventions have destabilized Haiti.

George W. Bush, responding to a question in a presidential debate, October Less than four years ago, presidential candidate George W. Marines that President Bush returned to the country in February on what can only be termed a nation-building exercise. While Aristide allowed violent gangs to do his bidding and corruption to control his government, the United States failed to make the necessary long-term investments in building democratic institutions and meeting economic needs.

With the promise of elections in , the transitional Haitian government and the United States have an opportunity to lay the groundwork for true democracy and economic development. However, to make this latest intervention a success, the United States must avoid the mistakes of the past by:. As a result, he twice won the presidency in and with overwhelming majorities in free elections. Thus, the defense of the administration was left in the hands of the disorganized chimeres — who were no match for the few dozen members of the dismantled Haitian army and its death squads who took the second largest city of Cap Haitian in broad daylight within hours.


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With the rebels in control of northern Haiti and advancing on the capital, Aristide found himself presiding over nothing but chaos. He hastily agreed to a Caribbean Community CARICOM power-sharing plan that aimed to keep him in office for the remaining two years of his five-year term — albeit as little more than a figurehead — and appealed for international peacekeepers to shore up his regime. Aristide then wrote a hasty resignation letter and was whisked into exile, making his swift and spectacular demise official. First, after the U. Thus, the United States left Haiti without the resources and supervision necessary for the long-term task of constructing more inclusive political and economic systems.

Second, the United States poorly handled the controversy over the parliamentary elections. In an election where over 3, seats were contested, Organization of American States OAS observers deemed the process a success, with the sole exception of the bizarre counting method used to determine eight senate seats. The U. This move effectively granted veto power to a diverse group of parties that have historically lacked credibility and popular support but have excelled at obstruction. This policy continued through the recent crisis when the United States failed to put adequate pressure on the opposition to accept a negotiated solution.

In fact, by rejecting the CARICOM proposal while the rebels were advancing on the capital, the opposition got exactly what it had always clamored for but could never achieve on its own — the early departure of the elected president. Third, the United States should have intervened more effectively in the February uprising.