Criminal Justice Technology In The 21st Century
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Therefore, criminal justice practitioners, from agency heads to line staff, must stay abreast of emergent capabilities and challenges in the field. Newly revised and updated, "Criminal Justice Technology in the 21st Century Third Edition " is a good contemporary resource in that endeavor.
21st Century Law Enforcement Technology Presents Opportunities and Challenges
Edited by Laura J. Moriarty, a professor at the Department of Criminal Justice, Monmouth University, "Criminal Justice Technology in the 21st Century" contains 12 chapters covering current developments in law enforcement and public safety technologies. An impressive cohort of 18 credentialed, wide-ranging specialists authored each of these chapters, which include topics on the changing criminal justice technology infrastructure, body-worn cameras, automated license plate recognition, victim notification systems and offender electronic monitoring.
As people increasingly accept online lifestyle habits, criminal investigations will follow suit, requiring surveillance, detection, analysis and evidence processing in digital mediums. An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. By Bornus, David. Read preview. Now it is a tool in the vast majority of volume crime investigation. Incidentally, it is often claimed that we have the largest DNAD in the world. We are working quite closely with them to look at the implications in two societies that have quite different views of how a database operates.
DNA technology is moving on to the extent that, just as we've moved fingerprints out into the street, we may be in a position to move DNA out into the street with mobile DNA profiling. There is now a platform that we call Livescan, in every single police station. The whole process of identity management and the way in which we deal with people in the police station has been transformed in one of those 55 pieces of legislation that Enver referred to in his introduction. Up until three or four years ago you did identity management at the end of the process, you now do it at the beginning, so your identity becomes an incredibly important part of your entry into the system.
Verifying that, making sure that we've got no replicas of people, making sure that we know who people are and have tracked their history effectively, has become an extraordinarily important part of investigation and an extraordinarily important part of tracking people through the system.
If you go back ten years that map was simply one database. These have undoubtedly contributed to policing: you can look at the results of the DNA database, for example, in terms of crime detection and in terms of its effect on the ways in which we investigate. Technology has undoubtedly contributed to the efficiency and productivity of policing - particularly if you add in databases like the automatic number plate recognition system.
We have made changes to the DNA database, in terms of adding independent public governance.
But, there is no doubt that with DNA and you only have to look at the coverage of the Madeleine McCann case to realise just how controversial DNA, its use and its deployment can be when those issues are aired in public it is very important for there to be effective governance, for there to be high standards, and for those standards to be openly understood across the system and by the public. As I said earlier on, one thing we've been very focussed on is counter terrorism work. For a number of us working in this space, the professional view is that the one area in which we have not improved significantly over the last period of time - over the last ten years - is raising our level of performance in relation to the most serious crimes.
I mentioned homicide. And you will have seen, and will know, the level of concern around gangs, guns and knives; around relatively small geographical areas of the country which have a disproportionately high level of concern and activity around that territory. That, in itself, is a challenge because - sitting as I do on the sentencing guidelines council - inevitably, any amount of extra effort that you put into dealing with serious and violent crime has a potentially significant effect on a prison system that is already substantially under pressure. So balancing out the effect of inputs into the system, with ensuring effectiveness at the front end of the system is a difficult balance.
It will have a substantial impact on the way the police go about their business. It is certainly already having an impact in terms of the police service gearing up to deal with risk. Terrorism is right up there in terms of the challenges facing policing; it is an ever present risk. I think the key thing is to see terrorism as a criminal act and deal with it as such, because it is, basically, a criminal activity. It is susceptible to the same preventative and investigative strategies as other forms of crime.
We have developed an expertise in investigating terrorism that has been drawn from the very best of, as it were, general criminal investigative practice. In fact, from my point of view, the hugely controversial debate around pre charge detention is not a debate - from my point of view - about the State trying to advance the boundaries of its influence in terms of dealing with a citizen.
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It is about trying to ensure that as many cases as possible, if not all cases of terrorism, are dealt with as a core criminal offence, subjected to the full investigative process, open to scrutiny, open to judicial oversight, and, fundamentally, that the rule of law is the thing that triumphs in dealing with terrorism, and not anything else. And I guess, for me, the lesson from 20 or 30 years ago in Northern Ireland, about trying to deal with terrorism outside those bounds, is that it is an utterly disastrous way, and encourages people to come forward and be terrorists in the future.
Developing a strategy which deals with terrorism preventatively, which deploys techniques which are fundamentally the same as we use to in other areas of policing, and which deals with terrorism through the criminal justice system, is a huge challenge.
A huge challenge for each part of the criminal justice system. Just look at the capacity of the system to deal with counter-terrorism and the sheer number of cases that are waiting for trial; that alone is a significant challenge for the system. I move on to talk about addressing the causes of crime.
So use the things that work with the people that it will work with. Use the techniques where we've got some proven sense that it will work. And above all keep evaluating it. Because, with each of these strategies - prolific and priority offender, drugs intervention programme, and early intervention with young people - we have learnt as we've gone. And I think over the next period of time if we can see more evidence-based approaches put into terrorism, and more robust debates around the effectiveness of particular strategies, we would be a lot better.
We now have an extremely different Home Office. The fact that we've got one means that we've got a place to have the debate, and a space for the Ministry of Justice and the Home Office teams, together with other parts of the criminal justice system and connected interests, to actually meet, to debate and to openly share practice.
But they are two very different enterprises than the enterprises that were there before. So what about the next five years? We have seen this enormous increase in the number and sophistication of technologies. So in some ways the technology, I think, forces us to work better together and therefore the opportunities over the course of the next three or four years are for a criminal justice system which operates differently. We've got some pegs in the ground already in place. Also in the next 5 years, we have the higher priority to be afforded to serious crime.
Well, actually, that is about the police service understanding that it has got to make a choice between a range of things that it has to keep ticking over, and some things it has to do significantly better on. And it has to have a debate with its public about how it does that. The continuing threat from terrorism has the ability to blow all of this off course. A really catastrophic attack would have a really catastrophic impact on all of the aforementioned.
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The last period of time has been one, in my service, of completely unprecedented growth, both in policing and investment in policing. It isn't going to happen again in the next three years. The creation of the Ministry of Justice is a very, very different paradigm to work within, where you have got a balance between, as it were, the more traditional Ministry of the Interior type approach and the more, in European terms, traditional Ministry of Justice.
And that dichotomy has got a little way to play out, I think.
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One agency. That in itself has some interesting constitutional implications, which are just working their way out, in terms of building a relationship with 43 local police agencies, and also in terms of recognising that there are some things that you can best do from within the police service. And I hope, by having one agency, it does offer us the opportunity to be forward looking, to actually think about the risks that are going to be hitting us in four or five years time, rather than just responding to the next initiative and the next thing that we've got to tackle, and the next problem, the next challenge, the next crisis, the next set of recommendations from a report.
It might give us the opportunity to actually try and shape some of those rather than just be behind the curve. And as for the culture of continuous improvement? Monday, 24 September, Thank you.